Saturday, October 30, 2010

Weight Training Vocabulary

     For those of you who would like to start a weight training program but have no idea what all of these terms mean, this one's for you!

hypertrophy – increase in cell size
atrophy – decrease in the size of a cell and/or a decrease in the number of cells.
resting metabolic rate – the amount of energy utilized by the body at rest
lean body mass – fat free mass plus essential fat
o    essential fat – fat incorporated into organs and tissues
o    fat free mass – muscle tissue, connective tissue, skeletal tissue, nervous tissue, organs, blood, and teeth
     accomodating resistance - the use of a machine that adjusts the resistance in an attempt to obtain maximum resistance through a full range of motion.
     barbell - a bar with iron plates attached
     concentric action - a shortening of the muscle against resistance
     dumbbell - a hand weight
     dynamic action - muslce action with movement
     eccentric action - a lengthening of the muscle against resistance
     free weights - barbells and dumbbells; free weights differ from strength training machines, which are restricted on how they can be used
     isokinetic training - the use of a machine that controls the speed of a muscle contration and attempts to vary the resistance according to the muscle force applied (some gyms have isokinetic machines)
     isometric action - muscle action without movement (such as a wall-sit)
     maximum resistance - maximum weight lifted in one repetition of an exercise
     muscular endurance - the ability to perform repeated muscle movememnts for a given period of time
     periodization - dividing the training year into periods and manipulating the stress of training to combat overtraining
     progressive resistance training - increasing the amount of weight lifted as one becomes stronger
     recovery period - the rest interval between sets
     repetition maximum - the maximum amount of weight lifted for a given number of repetitions. For example, 1 RM would be the maximum weight lifted for one repetition, and 6 RM would be the maximum weight lifted for six repetitions
     repetitions - the number of times an exercise is performed (also known as a rep)
     set - a given number of repetitions
     strength - the ability to exert force against resistance
     variable resistance training - the use of a machine that adjusts the resistance through the range of movement of a muscle contraction to accomodate to the changes in muscle strength at different joint angles
     weight lifting - competition that requires the participants to use specific lifts
     weight training - a systematic series of resistance exercises to develop strength (so yes, weight training and weight lifting are two different things)

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